Containers are stored behind the wharf while awaiting delivery or loading. This part of the terminal, the stack, is managed:
A straddle carrier operating between the stack and the ship-to-shore area.
There are several possibilities:
Vehicles are controlled manually for all of these methods. There are now in the major ports of northern Europe terminals equipped with automated machinery controlled by extremely sophisticated software. We can cite, as an example:
The Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) for the link between the ship-to-shore area and the stack.
An automatically guided vehicle (AGV).
Automated Stacking Crane (or ASC) for managing the stack.
An automatically controlled gantry crane
Photo sources: Gottwald Port Technology.